is an pain medication used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain. When taken by mouth in an immediate-release formulation, the onset of pain relief usually begins within an hour. It is also available by injection. Tramadol was patented in 1963 and launched under the name "Tramal" in 1977 by the West German pharmaceutical company Grünenthal GmbH. In the mid-1990s, it was approved in the United Kingdom and the United States. It is available as a generic medication and marketed under many brand names worldwide. In 2020, it was the 35th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 17 million prescriptions.






is a depressant substance of the benzodiazepine class. Its characteristic effects include anxiety suppression, sedation, disinhibition, and muscle relaxation.






is a depressant substance of the benzodiazepine class. Its mechanism of action is to increase the effects of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA.







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